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Cheap Oakleys,42 CAD,neuronal energy metabolism in the brain

Cheap Oakleys,42 CAD,neuronal energy metabolism in the brain

Glucose has long been considered the substrate for neuronal energy metabolism in the brain. Recently, an alternative explanation of energy Oakley metabolism in the active brain, the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, has received attention. It suggests that during neural activity energy needs in glia are met by anaerobic glycolysis, whereas neuronal metabolism is fueled by lactate released from glia. In this article, we critically examine the evidence supporting this hypothesis and explain, from the perspective of enzyme kinetics and substrate availability, why neurons probably use ambient glucose, and not glial-derived lactate, as the major substrate during activity. There are well known methods to determine residual and load stresses from the measurement of lattice strains by X-ray and neutron diffraction. It is Cheap Oakleys shown theoretically that certain lattice strains are independent of the influences of the stress state, the anisotropy, the orientation or the assumption of the kind of crystallite interaction. The result is discussed and its validity is confirmed by experiments. Cubic symmetry is assumed. The invariant points can be used to check the experimental results fulfilling the theoretical conditions, because different data for residual or load stress states should intersect in special invariant points.
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